LTE-based V2X communication uses a high capacity, large cell coverage range, and widely deployed infrastructure to support various types of vehicular communication services for safety and non-safety applications. Technical organizations such as 3GPP and Qualcomm have already prepared the roadmap toward 5G-based V2X services.
Security defined in 3GPP mainly includes confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and resistance to replay attack.
New privacy and security challenges, including secure mobility management for group-oriented autonomous platoons, reliable cooperative driving, efficient and privacy-preserving vehicular big data sharing and processing, and more, demand more investigation in 5G vehicular networks.
In the scenario of the possible solutions for automotive security and safety assurance against any cyberattack, the full adoption of a double-key cryptosystem is advisable.
V2X applications depend on continuous, detailed location information, which can lead to privacy concerns. In a privately owned vehicle, location traces will reveal the movements and activities of the driver, who might or might not be the owner of the vehicle. In short, sending and disseminating V2X user location information might have a possible privacy concern for the owner and driver of the vehicle.
Other V2X applications include communication between vehicles that will augment existing methods to help with left- or right-turn assistance, emergency braking warnings, and improved situational awareness at intersections. Extending Waze concepts can control or suggest speed adjustments to account for traffic congestion and update a GPS map with real-time updates on lane closure and highway construction activity. V2X in some form is essential to support over-the-air (OTA) software updates for the now-extensive range of software-driven systems in your car, from map updates to bug fixes to security updates and more.
V2X safety messages can be made to include a Basic Safety Message (BSM) in U.S. standards or Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAM) and a Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages (DENM) in a European Union (EU) standard.
BSM contains position, velocity, and acceleration information and is transmitted up to 10 times per second. This message system also enables the vehicle receiving unit to predict collisions and warn the driver.
V2X and V2I communication needs strong security to protect messages against fraudulent or misleading use that might lead to safety and privacy issues. Another method for security is signed messages using Public Key Certificates that are used to prevent unauthorized parties from interfering with the exchange of data and to pseudonymize the communication securely.
Public key infrastructure (PKI) consists of policies and procedures used to create, manage, use, save and revoke digital security certificates. PKI allows for the transfer of electronic information securely and goes beyond just passwords as authentication with a requirement of more rigorous identity confirmation.
Intention or trajectory sharing will enhance autonomous driving by providing a higher level of predictability and traffic efficiency in advanced path planning.
5G New Radio (5G NR) will enable intent sharing with:
- High throughput: 5G can provide the required high data rates needed, such as greater than 100Mbps in a 1km stretch.
- High reliability: 5G can ensure that trajectory information will be shared accurately and promptly.
- Low latency: 5G low latency capabilities will allow trajectory information to be shared within a few milliseconds.